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[GENERAL ORDER NO. 59, (1977-06-25)](https://lawyerly.ph/laws/view/l5b1b)
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[ GENERAL ORDER NO. 59, June 25, 1977 ]

FURTHER LIMITING THE JURISDICTION OF MILITARY TRIBUNALS

WHEREAS, upon the proclamation of martial law on September 21, 1972, certain types of criminal cases were placed under the cognizance of military tribunals.

WHEREAS, it is necessary that the military authorities should be able to better concentrate their efforts and attention of their primary functions;

WHEREAS, it is believed now appropriate to limit the jurisdiction of military tribunals to certain typed of criminal cases.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, FERDINAND E. MARCOS, President of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers in me vested by the Constitution, do hereby decree the following as part of the law of the land.

SECTION1. The military tribunals created under General Order No. 8 dated September 27, 1972, shall exercise exclusive jurisdiction over the following cases:
  1. All offenses committed by military personnel of the Armed Forces of the Philippines whilein the performance of their official duty or which arose out of any act or omission done in the performance of their officials duty:  Provided, that for the purpose of determining whether an offense was committed while in the performance of official duty or whether it arose out of an act or omission done in the performance of official duty, a certificate issued by the Secretary of National Defense to the effect shall be conclusive unless modified or revoked by the President:  Provided, further, that whenever in any of the foregoing offenses, there are two or more accused at least one of whom is a military personnel, military tribunals shall have jurisdiction over the offense.

  2. Crimes against national security and the law of nations as defined and penalized in Title 1, Book 11 of the Revised Penal Code.

  3. Violations of the Anti-Subversion Law as defined and penalized in Republic Act. No. 1700. or Presidential Decree No. 885, as the case may be.

  4. Espionage (Commonwealth Act No. 616).

  5. Crimes against public order as defined and penalized under the Revised Penal Code, as Amended, Namely:

    (1) Rebellion or insurrection (Art. 134);

    (2) Conspiracy and proposals to commit rebellion or insurrection (Art. 136);

    (3) Disloyalty of public officers or employee (Art. 137);

    (4) Inciting to rebellion insurrection (Art. 138);

    (5) Sedition (Art. 142);

    (8) Illegal assemblies (Art. 146);

    (9) Illegal associations (Art. 147);

  6. Crimes as defined Penalized under Presidential Decree no. 33 such as printing, possession, distribution and circulation of certain leaflets, handbills and propaganda materials, and the inscribing or designing or graffiti.

  7. Violations of the laws on firearms and explosives found in the Revised Administrative Code, as amended, and General Orders Nos. 6 and 7, as amended, in relation to Presidential Decree No. 9, including crimes committed with the use of illegally possesses firearms and explosives.

  8. Usurpation of military authority, rank, title and/or illegal manufacturer, sale and/or use of military uniforms or insignia, as embraced in Article 177 and 179 of the Revised Penal Code, as amended, and in Republic Act No. 493.
SEC. 2. All offenses not specifically mentioned in the preceeding section shall be under the jurisdiction of the civil courts: Provided, that the President may, in the public interest, refer to a military tribunal a case falling under the exclusive jurisdiction of the civil courts or a case falling under the exclusive jurisdiction of the military tribunal to a civil court.

SEC. 3. All cases not falling under Sectional hereof in which the accused have not been arraigned as of the date of effectivity of this Order shall immediately be transferred to the appropriate civil courts.  However, the case of an announced who has been arraigned may still and regulations which the Secretary of National Defence is hereby authorized to promulgated.

SEC. 4.  General Orders Nob. 49, 54 and 57, Presidential Decree No.  33-A, Presidential Memorandum to the Secretary of National Defense dated December 5, 1973 (remilitary tribunal jurisdiction over violations of Presidential Decree No. 296), and the provisions of (Presidential) other general orders, Presidential decrees or letters of instructions conffering exclusive or concurrent jurisdiction over other offenses on the military tribunals which are inconsistent with the provisions of this Order, are hereby repealed or modified accordingly.  Nothing, however, in this General Order shall be constructed as depriving courts-martial of their jurisdictions over offenses under the Articles of War.

SEC. 5.  This Order shall take effect immediately.

Done in the City of Manila, this 24fth day of June, in the year of our Lord, nir.3teen hundred and seventy-seven.

By the President

JUAN C. TUVERA
Presidential Assistant

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